Water is the most important raw material for beverage production, and the quality of water has great influence on the quality of beverages. Therefore, water must be treated to meet the technological requirements. Usually, water treatment equipment is divided into three categories according to its function: water filtration equipment, water softening equipment and water disinfection and sterilization equipment. (1) water filtration equipment (1) sand filter equipment (multi medium filter equipment) sand filter (multi medium filter) is a mechanical filter with layered anthracite, sand, fine grenaceous garnet or other materials. The principle is to filter particles with different granularity in water by depth, the larger particles are removed at the top layer and smaller. The particles are removed in the deeper layer of the filter medium, so that the water quality can reach the standard after coarse filtration, and the SDI (sludge density index) value of water can be reduced to meet the water quality requirements of the deep purification. (2) active carbon with activated carbon filter has adsorption and turbidity removal. The main structure and layout of activated carbon filter are similar to sand filter. Therefore, activated carbon adsorption is also known as activated carbon filtration. Activated carbon filtration is mainly used for organic impurities in water and colloidal micro particle impurities in water. It can also be used for dechlorination. (3) sand core rod filter sand core rod filter, also known as sand filter rod filter, has been set up in water treatment equipment. It is mainly used for water treatment with less water and only organic matter, bacteria and other impurities in water. (4) microporous filtration is a new membrane separation technology. It can filtrate more than 0.01 M particles and bacteria from filtrate and gas. Its characteristics are high capture ability, large filter area, long service life, high filtration precision, small resistance, high mechanical strength, no peeling phenomenon, strong acid and alkali resistance and easy to use. This filter can filter out most of the particulates, so it is widely used in fine filtration and sterilization.
(two) water softening equipment (1) ion exchanger ion exchanger is a common device in water treatment. It can soften or desalted water by selecting a certain process. It mainly uses some ion exchangers to temporarily immobilization the ions which are not needed in raw water, so that the content of these ions in water can be reduced to the required level. The ions fixed by the exchanger are released in the regeneration solution, and the exchanger can be reused. That is to say, the substance is the physical and chemical reaction of the insoluble electrolyte (resin) with another electrolyte in the solution, that is, the exchange reaction between the exchangeable ions on the resin and the other homosexual ions in the solution. (2) electrodialysis is used as a new technology for separation, concentration, purification and recovery in industry, which is widely used in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Applications in the food industry are mainly concentrated on the use of purified water for drinking water and beer, and for softening (desalting) water in soft drinks factories. Electrodialysis is a technique for purifying the anion and cation of the raw water through the anion exchange membrane and the cation exchange membrane, which has the selective permeability and good conductivity of the ion exchange membrane under the effect of the external direct current electric field. (3) reverse osmosis is a membrane technology with the largest application scale and relatively mature technology. Its application is about half of the whole membrane separation field. It is the biggest breakthrough in the development of membrane technology. Reverse osmosis is the separation of solvents from the solution by reverse osmosis. The application of reverse osmosis has been widely used in many aspects, such as seawater desalination, hard water softening and so on to the concentration of vitamins, antibiotics and hormones, the isolation of bacteria and viruses, and the concentration of juice, milk and coffee. The advantages of reverse osmosis equipment are continuous operation, the quality of the product is stable, no need to be regenerated with acid and alkali; it will not stop because of regeneration; it saves the backflushing and cleaning water; it produces ultra pure water at high yield (the yield can be as high as 95%); the regenerated sewage does not need water treatment facilities; it is low in operation and maintenance; simple in installation and low in cost.